With global population rising toward 9 billion people, improvements in agricultural productivity must be made in order to promote food security and protect our environment. Animal biotechnology is poised to play a leading role, and American scientists have long been the undisputed leaders in this field. But despite their potential environmental and consumer benefits, products that can be demonized as FrankenFish or EnviroPig are being delayed by regulatory intransigence, public confusion, and political indecision. With no clear path forward, many products are now being sent overseas to countries with more responsive regulatory climates. Will the United States surrender its lead in science and innovation? Will we be forced to give up technologies that can deliver real environmental and economic benefits?